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This Day in History - 14th September


1607 The 'Flight of the Earls' from Lough Swilly, Donegal, in Ireland took place when Hugh Ó Neill (the earl of Tyrone) and about ninety followers left Ireland for mainland Europe following their earlier defeat in battle. They hoped to recruit an army for the invasion of Ireland with Spanish help, but King Philip III of Spain wanted to preserve the recent peace with England under its new Stuart dynasty so it was all to no avail. Nevertheless he persisted with the invasion plan until his death in exile in 1616.

1682 Bishop Gore School, in Swansea was founded. It is one of the oldest schools in Wales and its most famous former pupil is almost certainly the poet, playwright and author Dylan Thomas who, it is said, was not a distinguished pupil. His father was Senior English Master at the school, which was then known as Swansea Grammar School.

1752 The 3rd of September became the 14th as the Gregorian Calendar was introduced into Britain. Crowds of people rioted on the streets demanding, 'Give us back our 11 days.'

1759 The earliest dated board game in England was sold on this day by its inventor John Jeffreys, from his house in Chapel Street, Westminster. The game was called 'A Journey Through Europe', or 'The play of Geography'.

1852 The Duke of Wellington, victor at Waterloo, died aged 83. He was known as the Iron Duke and was Tory Prime Minister from 1828-30. 'Duke of Wellington' is a hereditary title, derived from the Somerset town of Wellington and was created for Arthur Wellesley, 1st Marquess of Wellington. 

1868 At the Open Championships at Prestwick, the legendary Scottish golfer Tom Morris scored the first recorded hole-in-one, on the 8th hole (166 yards).

1891 The first penalty kick in an English League football game was taken by Heath of Wolverhampton Wanderers against Accrington.

1909 Peter Scott, British artist and ornithologist was born.

1910 The birth of the actor Jack Hawkins. He mostly appeared in character roles, often in epic films such as The Bridge on the River Kwai, Zulu, The Cruel Sea and Lawrence of Arabia. A 60 a day smoker, Hawkins began experiencing voice problems in the late 1950s. His entire larynx was removed and his performances were dubbed. Hawkins continued to smoke after losing his voice and died aged 62.

1951 Prime Minister Clement Attlee opened the largest oil refinery in Europe, at Fawley on Southampton Water.

1964 The British daily newspaper, the Daily Herald, ceased publication and was replaced by the Sun.

1974 Two giant pandas, Chia-Chia and Ching-Ching, arrived at London Zoo.

1981 A teenage boy who fired blank shots at the Queen in June 1980, pleaded guilty to a charge under the 1848 Treason Act.

1988 A London taxi reached New Delhi with the meter showing a fare of £13,200. It was part of a six-man expedition on the way to Sydney.

1997 Pete Townshend unveiled an English Heritage Blue Plaque at 23, Brook Street, Mayfair, London to mark where Jimi Hendrix had lived in 1968-69. He was the first pop star to be commemorated with the plaque.

2001 Offices, shops and factories across the UK fell silent for three minutes as the nation mourned the victims of the US terrorist attacks.